Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009
Issue release date: August 2009
Section title: Original Research Article
Free Access
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;28:75–80

Midlife Serum Cholesterol and Increased Risk of Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia Three Decades Later

Solomon A.a, b · Kivipelto M.a, b · Wolozin B.c · Zhou J.d · Whitmer R.A.d
aDepartment of Neurology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; bAging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; cDepartment of Pharmacology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass., and dDivision of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

Alina Solomon

Department of Neurology, University of Kuopio

PO Box 1627

FI–70211 Kuopio (Finland)

Tel. +46 8 690 5822, Fax +46 8 690 5954, E-Mail alina.solomon@uku.fi

Do you have an account?

Login Information

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.


Aims: To investigate midlife cholesterol in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) in a large multiethnic cohort of women and men. Methods: The Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Group (healthcare delivery organization) formed the database for this study. The 9,844 participants underwent detailed health evaluations during 1964–1973 at ages 40–45 years; they were still members of the health plan in 1994. AD and VaD were ascertained by medical records between 1 January 1994 and 1 June 2007. Cox proportional hazards models – adjusted for age, education, race/ethnic group, sex, midlife diabetes, hypertension, BMI and late-life stroke – were conducted. Results: In total, 469 participants had AD and 127 had VaD. With desirable cholesterol levels (<200 mg/dl) as a reference, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI for AD were 1.23 (0.97–1.55) and 1.57 (1.23–2.01) for borderline (200–239 mg/dl) and high cholesterol (≥240 mg/dl), respectively. HR and 95% CI for VaD were 1.50 (1.01–2.23) for borderline and 1.26 (0.82–1.96) for high cholesterol. Further analyses for AD (cholesterol quartiles, 1st quartile reference) indicated that cholesterol levels >220 mg/dl were a significant risk factor: HR were 1.31 (1.01–1.71; 3rd quartile, 221–248 mg/dl) and 1.58 (1.22–2.06; 4th quartile, 249–500 mg/dl). Conclusion: Midlife serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of AD and VaD. Even moderately elevated cholesterol increased dementia risk. Dementia risk factors need to be addressed as early as midlife, before underlying disease(s) or symptoms appear.

© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Accepted: April 27, 2009
Published online: August 04, 2009
Issue release date: August 2009

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.