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Cover

Pediatric Neuroendocrinology

Editor(s): Loche S. (Cagliari) 
Cappa M. (Rome) 
Ghizzoni L. (Turin) 
Maghnie M. (Genova) 
Savage M.O. (London) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 17, No. , 2010
Section title: Paper
Loche S, Cappa M, Ghizzoni L, Maghnie M, Savage MO (eds): Pediatric Neuroendocrinology. Endocr Dev. Basel, Karger, 2010, vol 17, pp 22–35
(DOI:10.1159/000262525)

Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation

Garcia-Falgueras A. · Swaab D.F.
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: November 24, 2009
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9302-1 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9303-8 (Online)

Abstract

The fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed or organized into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in extreme cases in trans-sexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no indication that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: November 24, 2009
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9302-1 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9303-8 (Online)


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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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