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Table of Contents
Vol. 61, No. 3, 2010
Issue release date: March 2010
Section title: Original Paper
Neuropsychobiology 2010;61:122–130
(DOI:10.1159/000279302)

Overview of Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Mortality Data – UK, 1997–2007

Schifano F.a, b · Corkery J.a · Naidoo V.a · Oyefeso A.a · Ghodse H.a
aNational Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths (np-SAD); International Centre for Drug Policy, St George’s, University of London, London, and bSchool of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: November 25, 2008
Accepted: September 13, 2009
Published online: January 29, 2010
Issue release date: March 2010

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 4
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 0302-282X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0224 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NPS

Abstract

Background/Aims: Despite being amphetamine derivatives, MDMA and its analogues show a number of clinical pharmacological differences with respect to both amphetamine (AMP) and methylamphetamine (METH). We aimed here at reporting and analysing information relating to the socio-demographics and clinical circumstances of the AMP-type stimulant-related deaths for the whole of the UK. Methods: Data (1997–2007) were taken from the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths (np-SAD) database, collecting information from UK coroners/procurators fiscal. To calculate rates of fatalities per 100,000 users, appropriate AMP/METH and ecstasy users’ numbers were taken from the 2001–2007 British Crime Survey. Results: Overall, 832 AMP/METH- and 605 ecstasy (mostly MDMA and methylenedioxyamphetamine/MDA)-related deaths were respectively identified. In comparison with AMP/METH victims, the ecstasy ones were more likely to be younger (28.3 vs. 32.7 years; p < 0.0001) and less likely to be known as drug users (PR = 1.9; CI 1.5–2.6). Ecstasy was more likely to be identified on its own than AMP/METH (p = 0.0192). Contributory factors were more frequently mentioned by coroners in the ‘AMP/METH-only’ (106 cases) group than in the ‘ecstasy-only’ (104 cases) one (p = 0.0043). Both poly- and monodrug AMP/METH fatalities per 100,000 16- to 59-year-old users were significantly more represented than ecstasy fatalities (respectively 17.87 ± 4.77 deaths vs. 10.89 ± 1.27; p = 0.000; 2.09 ± 0.88 vs. 1.75 ± 0.56; p = 0.0096). However, mono-intoxication ecstasy fatalities per 100,000 16- to 24-year-old users were significantly more represented than AMP/METH fatalities (1.67 ± 0.52 vs. 0.8 ± 0.65; p = 0.0007). Conclusion: With respect to AMP/METH, ecstasy was here more typically identified in victims who were young, healthy, and less likely to be known as drug users. AMP/METH high mortality rates may be explained by users’ high levels of physical co-morbidity; excess ecstasy-related fatality rates in young users may be a reason for concern. Although the coroners’ response rate was of 90–95%, study limitations include both reporting inconsistency over time and lack of routine information on drug intake levels prior to death.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: November 25, 2008
Accepted: September 13, 2009
Published online: January 29, 2010
Issue release date: March 2010

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 4
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 0302-282X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0224 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NPS


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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