Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009
Issue release date: August 2009
Section title: Original Research Article
Free Access
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;28:47–55

Risk Factors of Transition from Normal Cognition to Mild Cognitive Disorder: The PATH through Life Study

Cherbuin N.a · Reglade-Meslin C.a · Kumar R.a, b · Jacomb P.a · Easteal S.c · Christensen H.a · Sachdev P.d, e · Anstey K.J.a
aCentre for Mental Health Research, bDepartment of Psychological Medicine, and cJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T., and dSchool of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, and eNeuropsychiatric Institute, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia
email Corresponding Author

Nicolas Cherbuin

Centre for Mental Health Research, Building 63

Australian National University

Canberra, A.C.T. 0200 (Australia)

Tel. +61 2 6125 3858, Fax +61 2 6125 0733, E-Mail nicolas.cherbuin@anu.edu.au


  1. Petersen RC, Negash S: Mild cognitive impairment: an overview. CNS Spectr 2008;13:45–53.
  2. Mitchell AJ, Shiri-Feshki M: Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia–meta-analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119:252–265.
  3. Artero S, Ancelin ML, Portet F, et al: Risk profiles for mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia are gender specific. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79:979–984.
  4. Braak H, Alafuzoff I, Arzberger T, Kretzschmar H, Del Tredici K: Staging of Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary pathology using paraffin sections and immunocytochemistry. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2006;112:389–404.
  5. Skoog I, Gustafson D: Update on hypertension and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Res 2006;28:605–611.
  6. Craft S: Insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis: potential mechanisms and implications for treatment. Curr Alzheimer Res 2007;4:147–152.
  7. Eggermont L, Swaab D, Luiten P, Scherder E: Exercise, cognition and Alzheimer’s disease: more is not necessarily better. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2006;30:562–575.
  8. Van Den Heuvel C, Thornton E, Vink R: Traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer’s disease: a review. Prog Brain Res 2007;161:303–316.
  9. Anstey KJ, Lipnicki DM, Low LF: Cholesterol as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: a systematic review of prospective studies with meta-analysis. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008;16:343–354.
  10. O’Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ: Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edged sword. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:1009–1014.
  11. Thomas AJ, O’Brien JT: Depression and cognition in older adults. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2008;21:8–13.
  12. Anstey KJ, von Sanden C, Salim A, O’Kearney R: Smoking as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:367–378.
  13. Jackson GR, Owsley C: Visual dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. Neurol Clin 2003;21:709–728.
  14. Ertekin-Taner N: Genetics of Alzheimer’s disease: a centennial review. Neurol Clin 2007;25:611–667.
  15. Ritchie K, Artero S, Touchon J: Classification criteria for mild cognitive impairment: a population-based validation study. Neurology 2001;56:37–42.
  16. Anstey KJ, Cherbuin N, Christensen H, et al: Follow-up of mild cognitive impairment and related disorders over 4 years in adults in their sixties: the PATH Through Life Study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:226–233.
  17. Jorm AF, Anstey KJ, Christensen H, Rodgers B: Gender differences in cognitive abilities: the mediating role of health state and health habits. Intelligence 2004;32:7–23.
    External Resources
  18. Kumar R, Dear KB, Christensen H, et al: Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in 60- to 64-year-old community-dwelling individuals: the Personality and Total Health Through Life 60+ Study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2005;19:67–74.
  19. Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Kokmen E: Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol 1999;56:303–308.
  20. Kral VA: Senescent forgetfulness: benign and malignant. Can Med Assoc J 1962;86:257–260.
  21. Crook T, Bartus RT, Ferris SH, Whitehouse P, Cohen GD, Gershon S: Age-associated memory impairment: proposed diagnostic criteria and measures of clinical change. Report of a National Institute of Mental Health work group. Devel Neuropsychol 1986;2:261–276.
    External Resources
  22. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Washington, APA, 1994.
  23. Morris JC: The clinical dementia rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;43:2412–2414.
  24. Kumar R, Parslow RA, Jorm AF, et al: Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of mild cognitive impairment in a middle-aged community sample: the Personality and Total Health Through Life 60+ Study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006;21:44–50.
  25. Ware J Jr, Kosinski M, Keller SD: A 12-item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Med Care 1996;34:220–233.
  26. Cherbuin N, Anstey KJ, Sachdev PS, et al: Total and regional gray matter volume is not related to APOE*E4 status in a community sample of middle-aged individuals. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:501–504.
  27. Goldberg D, Bridges K, Duncan-Jones P, Grayson D: Detecting anxiety and depression in general medical settings. BMJ 1988;297:897–899.
  28. Chodosh J, Kado DM, Seeman TE, Karlamangla AS: Depressive symptoms as a predictor of cognitive decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007;15:406–415.
  29. Saunders JB, Aasland OG, Babor TF, de la Fuente JR, Grant M: Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption – II. Addiction 1993;88:791–804.
  30. Palmer K, Berger AK, Monastero R, Winblad B, Backman L, Fratiglioni L: Predictors of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2007;68:1596–1602.
  31. Schroeter MR, Sawalich M, Humboldt T, et al: Cigarette smoke exposure promotes arterial thrombosis and vessel remodeling after vascular injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Vasc Res 2008;45:480–492.
  32. Gache P, Michaud P, Landry U, et al: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as a screening tool for excessive drinking in primary care: reliability and validity of a French version. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2005;29:2001–2007.
  33. Solfrizzi V, D’Introno A, Colacicco AM, et al: Alcohol consumption, mild cognitive impairment, and progression to dementia. Neurology 2007;68:1790–1799.
  34. Rodgers B, Windsor TD, Anstey KJ, Dear KB, A FJ, Christensen H: Non-linear relationships between cognitive function and alcohol consumption in young, middle-aged and older adults: the PATH Through Life Project. Addiction 2005;100:1280–1290.
  35. Hanon O, Pequignot R, Seux ML, et al: Relationship between antihypertensive drug therapy and cognitive function in elderly hypertensive patients with memory complaints. J Hypertens 2006;24:2101–2107.
  36. Hoffman LB, Schmeidler J, Lesser GT, et al: Less Alzheimer disease neuropathology in medicated hypertensive than nonhypertensive persons. Neurology 2009; 72:1720-6.
  37. Reitz C, Tang MX, Manly J, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA: Hypertension and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2007;64:1734–1740.
  38. McGuinness B, Todd S, Passmore P, Bullock R: The effects of blood pressure lowering on development of cognitive impairment and dementia in patients without apparent prior cerebrovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;CD004034.
  39. Nilsson SE, Read S, Berg S, Johansson B, Melander A, Lindblad U: Low systolic blood pressure is associated with impaired cognitive function in the oldest old: longitudinal observations in a population-based sample 80 years and older. Aging Clin Exp Res 2007;19:41–47.
  40. Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Bennett DA, et al: Blood pressure and late-life cognitive function change: a biracial longitudinal population study. Neurology 2004;62:2021–2024.
  41. Henry-Feugeas MC: Alzheimer’s disease in late-life dementia: a minor toxic consequence of devastating cerebrovascular dysfunction. Med Hypotheses 2008;70:866–875.
  42. Sparks DL, Kryscio RJ, Sabbagh MN, Connor DJ, Sparks LM, Liebsack C: Reduced risk of incident AD with elective statin use in a clinical trial cohort. Curr Alzheimer Res 2008;5:416–421.
  43. Arvanitakis Z, Schneider JA, Wilson RS, et al: Statins, incident Alzheimer disease, change in cognitive function, and neuropathology. Neurology 2008;70:1795–1802.
  44. Anstey KJ, Windsor TD, Rodgers B, Jorm AF, Christensen H: Lower cognitive test scores observed in alcohol abstainers are associated with demographic, personality, and biological factors: the PATH Through Life Project. Addiction 2005;100:1291–1301.