Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005
Issue release date: June 2005
Section title: Original Research Article
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2005;20:45–51

Supplemental Use of Antioxidant Vitamins and Subsequent Risk of Cognitive Decline and Dementia

Maxwell C.J.a, b · Hicks M.S.a · Hogan D.B.a-c · Basran J.b · Ebly E.M.c
Departments of aCommunity Health Sciences, bMedicine, and cClinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
email Corresponding Author

Dr. Colleen Maxwell

Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary

Heritage Medical Research Building, 3330 Hospital Drive N.W.

Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1 (Canada)

Tel. +1 403 220 6557, Fax +1 403 270 7307, E-Mail maxwell@ucalgary.ca


  1. Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, et al: A controlled trial of selegiline, α-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease: The Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1216–1222.
  2. Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, van Swieten JC, Hofman A, Witteman JCM, Breteler MMB: Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 2002;287:3223–3229.
  3. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, Wilson RS, Scherr PA: Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a biracial community study. JAMA 2002;287:3230–3237.
  4. Luchsinger JA, Tang M-X, Shea S, Mayeux R: Antioxidant vitamin intake and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:203–208.
  5. Zandi PP, Anthony JC, Khachaturian AS, Stone SV, Gustafson D, Tschanz JT, Norton MC, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Breitner JCS, for the Cache County Study Group: Reduced risk of Alzheimer disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements. The Cache County Study. Arch Neurol 2004;61:82–88.
  6. Markesbery WR: The role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1999;56:1449–1452.
  7. Christen, Y: Oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(suppl):621S–629S.
  8. Delanty N, Dichter MA: Antioxidant therapy in neurologic disease. Arch Neurol 2000;57:1265–1270.
  9. Misonou H, Morishima-Kawashima M, Ihara Y: Oxidative stress induces intracellular accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in human neuroblastoma cells. Biochemistry 2000;39:6951–6959.
  10. Halliwell B: Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic implications for antioxidant treatment. Drugs Aging 2001;18:685–716.
  11. Poon HF, Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Butterfield DA: Free radicals: Key to brain aging and heme oxygenase as a cellular response to oxidative stress. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59A:478–493.
  12. Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, Foley DJ, Ross GW, Petrovitch H, Havlik R, White LR: Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology 2000;54:1265–1272.
  13. Morris MC, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, Hebert LE, Bennett DA, Field TS, Evans DA: Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1998;12:121–126.
  14. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Wilson RS: Vitamin E and cognitive decline in older persons. Arch Neurol 2002;59:1125–1132.
  15. Teng EL, Chui HC: The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. J Clin Psychiatry 1987;48:314–318.
  16. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1987, pp 133–136.
  17. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  18. World Health Organization: International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Categories F00-F99, mental, behavioural and developmental disorders (1987 draft of chapter V). Geneva, World Health Organization, 1987, Rep No MNH/MEP/87.1 rev1.
  19. Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group: Canadian Study of Health and Aging: Study methods and prevalence of dementia. CMAJ 1994;150:899–913.
  20. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group: The incidence of dementia in Canada. Neurology 2000;55:66–73.
  21. Maxwell CJ, Hogan DB, Ebly EM: Serum folate levels and subsequent adverse cerebrovascular outcomes in elderly persons. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2002;13:225–234.
  22. Maxwell CJ, Hogan DB, Ebly EM: Calcium-channel blockers and cognitive function in elderly people: Results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. CMAJ 1999;161:501–506.
  23. Rockwood K, Ebly E, Hachinski V, Hogan D: Presence and treatment of vascular risk factors in patients with vascular cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 1997;54:33–39.
  24. Kelsey JL, Whittemore AS, Evans AS, Thompson WD: Methods in Observational Epidemiology, ed 2. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.
  25. SAS Institute Inc: SAS User’s Guide, release 8.2 for Windows. Cary, SAS Institute Inc., 1999–2001.
  26. Tang M-X, Stern Y, Marder K, Bell K, Gurland B, Lantigua R, Andrews H, Feng L, Tycko B, Mayeux R: The APOE-ε4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer disease among African Americans, Whites and Hispanics. JAMA 1998;279:751–755.